Infecciones por el virus de la diarrea viral bovina: aspectos clínicos, anátomo-patológicos y epidemiológicos y su impacto económico en la ganadería

Elpidio G. Chamizo Pestana

Resumen

Se realizó una revisión de la literatura acerca de los aspectos clínicos, anatomo-patológicos y epidemiológicos y el impacto económico provocado por la infección por el virus de la diarrea viral bovina, vDVB. El vDVB tiene dos genotipos, los cuales juegan un papel importante en la presentación de animales persistentemente infectados y en la patogénesis de la enfermedad de las mucosas. Las infecciones por vDVB, se manifiestan en varias formas clínicas: diarrea en animales jóvenes y adultos; aborto e infertilidad en hembras gestadas; animales persistentemente infectados, inmunosupresión  y la enfermedad de las mucosas con un 100% de mortalidad. La vacunación ha sido el método más efectivo para prevenir o controlar la diseminación del vDVB, pero tanto las vacunas inactivadas como las vacunas de virus vivo inactivadas presentan inconvenientes. El diagnóstico puede realizarse por métodos directos: aislamiento viral como indirectos: detección de antígenos o de anticuerpos. Las infecciones por vDVB, deben ser diferenciadas de enfermedades como: fiebre aftosa, lengua azul y salmonelosis, por solo mencionar las más importantes son importantes para nuestra ganadería. El impacto económico  de las infecciones por vDVB, solo son consideradas cuando se presentan en la forma de brotes, como ha sido demostrado en los países afectados.

Palabras clave

Revisión; infección virus diarrea viral bovina.

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